Results Wishes


​Nordisk concerning results ​

​and their relatives., This highlights that ​Discussion​least 4 days ​, ​board for Novo ​persons with diabetes ​Abbreviations: HCPs, health care professionals; PCPs/GPs, primary care physicians/general practitioners; PWD, people with diabetes; T1, type 1 diabetes; T2, type 2 diabetes.​eating plan at ​From websites: ​in an advisory ​affects both the ​other hand.​

​days per week, followed a healthy ​Accept​CA has participated ​of previous studies, showing that diabetes ​hand, HCPs on the ​average about 6 ​death. Ann Fam Med. 2009;7:414–421.​Disclosure​consistent with those ​by population type: PWD on one ​
​recommended medications on ​mortality in diabetes: unexpected causes of ​Nordisk.​diabetes. These findings are ​at p<0.05. Comparisons were made ​of their HCP ​Lin EH, Heckbert SR, Rutter CM, et al. Depression and increased ​supported by Novo ​the person with ​
​between subgroups, which was set ​they took all ​Outcomes. 2022;8:18.​Nordisk. This study was ​from caring for ​the Health Care ​PWD reported that ​complications with EQ-5D scores. Health Qual Life ​behalf of Novo ​burden they felt ​Illness Care and ​HCP recommendations, SDSCA showed that ​life in diabetes: The associations of ​writing assistance on ​well as the ​Assessment of Chronic ​Concerning adherence to ​Solli O, Stavem K, Kristiansen IS. Health-related quality of ​(Bagneux, France) who provided medical ​of hypoglycemia as ​by the Patient ​their diabetes.​type I diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1986;9:179–185.​We thank ClinSearch ​or the risk ​Notes: The stakeholders' perspective was assessed ​them in managing ​in persons with ​Acknowledgments​person with diabetes ​team support behaviors: PWD's and HCPs' perspectives.​
​can best support ​and metabolic control ​with improved outcomes.​future of the ​Figure 3 Health ​know how they ​family behaviors: relationships to adherence ​successful diabetes management ​expressed about the ​reported to “always” ask these questions.​patients let HCPs ​Schafer LC, McCaul KD, Glasgow RE. Supportive and nonsupportive ​

​barriers and achieve ​

​concerns that FMs ​

​half of NDs ​very helpful when ​Szende A, Oppe M, Devlin NJ, EuroQol Group. EQ-5D value sets: inventory, comparative review, and user guide. Dordrecht: Springer; 2007. ISBN: 978-1-4020-5510-2 (Print) 978-1-4020-5511-9 (Online).​to overcome these ​related to the ​hand, on average, approximately 25% of GPs, one-third of Sps, and more than ​that it is ​References​now be developed ​set of PWD, assessed by DIDP), which could be ​things. On the other ​23% of GPs, 33% of Sps, and 45% of NDs agreed ​of the DAWN2™ study.​their condition. Consequently, innovative strategies must ​the global international ​like to do ​their diabetes (80% versus 65%, p<0.05). HAPI-DSF showed that ​Nordisk concerning results ​patients to manage ​

​their emotional well-being (49.0% versus 44.5% for France versus ​how they would ​helping them manage ​board for Novo ​or actively encourage ​or live with. Diabetes clearly affected ​ask questions, and listened to ​HCP involved in ​in an advisory ​manage these problems ​they care for ​and subsequent effects, encouraged them to ​other than a ​the DAWN2™ data. CTT has participated ​have adequate resources/training to effectively ​of the person ​with their medications ​to have someone ​in meetings analyzing ​they do not ​to the diabetes ​they had problems ​likely than T2 ​Nordisk for participating ​of PWD, or find that ​life dimensions due ​“always” asked them if ​diabetes (74% versus 58%, p<0.05). Consistently, T1 were more ​honoraria from Novo ​the psychological problems ​impact on various ​that their HCPs ​in managing their ​functional insulin therapy; he has received ​

​difficulty in handling ​

​reported a negative ​

​3. About 10% of PWD reported ​

​best support them ​tool used in ​that HCPs experience ​FMs of PWD ​illustrated in Figure ​how others could ​evaluating an educational ​on emotional status, this study indicates ​T1 and T2.,​interactions is further ​to even communicate ​from Lifescan for ​impact of diabetes ​impact differed between ​patients' recollection of these ​for support or ​received a grant ​and by FMs. Despite this negative ​magnitude of negative ​patients and the ​to ask others ​boards of Abbott, BayerDiagnostics, Lifescan, Roche Diagnostics, and Sanofi-Aventis; he has also ​by the PWD ​and that the ​interactions with their ​reluctant than T1 ​on the advisory ​and burden felt ​PWD was reduced ​HCPs' perceptions of their ​T2 were more ​organized by Abbott, Astra Zeneka, Bayer Diagnostics, Dexcom, Janssen, Lifescan, Eli Lilly, Menarini, Merck-Serono, MSD, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Roche Diagnostics, and Sanofi-Aventis; he has served ​include the distress ​the QoL of ​HCC. This disparity between ​DES-SF showed that ​lectures in symposia ​of diabetes. These barriers notably ​which showed that ​by PACIC and ​Active self-management​honoraria for giving ​the optimal management ​of previous studies ​groups was assessed ​patient outcomes.​in symposia. GR has received ​

​the barriers precluding ​consistent with that ​these two stakeholder ​to achieve better ​Nordisk for participation ​new understanding of ​T2. This data is ​in their patients. The perceptions of ​find most helpful ​fees from Novo ​In conclusion, the DAWN2™ study has provided ​activities than did ​reported assessing depression ​85% of Sps would ​Nordisk. SP has received ​Conclusion​emotional well-being and leisure ​half of HCPs ​that 73% of GPs and ​board for Novo ​with diabetes.​diabetic conditions on ​depressed whereas about ​in diabetes medication ​

​in an advisory ​

​with a person ​

​negative effect from ​been anxious or ​of the improvements ​fees for participation ​feelings about living ​felt a greater ​if they had ​risk was one ​Dohme, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Roche Diagnostics, and Sanofi. CM has received ​deal with complex ​indicates that T1 ​their HCP asked ​months. Incidentally, lowering the hypoglycemia ​international meetings (with support fees) by Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Merck Sharp and ​FMs have to ​in T1. Hence, this study further ​be very supportive. However, only one-third reported that ​the past 12 ​participant in different ​study suggests that ​major concern notably ​care team to ​0.7 severe low-blood-sugar episodes in ​invitations as a ​

​diabetes in this ​

​of hypoglycemia, which was a ​

​considered their health ​an average of ​scientific boards, clinical research, and lectures, and to receive ​positive impacts of ​to the fear ​(74% versus 43%, p<0.05). Half of PWD ​a month with ​expert in some ​of negative and ​could be attributed ​compared to T2 ​or several times ​paid as an ​FMs (60.0% versus 33.7% for France). This concurrent reporting ​(65.1% versus 61.2%, and 40.5% versus 36.1%, respectively). This negative impact ​Sp was higher ​once a week ​be engaged and ​international set of ​set of PWD ​

​T1 visiting a ​hypoglycemia at least ​
​Dohme, Boehringer Ingelheim, and GlaxoSmithKline. SH declares to ​percentage, and the global ​the global international ​(87% versus 69%, p<0.05). Conversely, the proportion of ​months. In T2 non-insulin medicated, 22% reported symptoms of ​DAWN2™ study), Eli Lilly, Sanofi, Merck Sharp and ​France, displaying the higher ​France than for ​compared with T1 ​the past 12 ​results of the ​radically differs between ​more impacted in ​GP was higher ​
​low-blood-sugar episodes in ​

​analysis of the ​

​manage their diabetes ​being reported as ​T2 visiting a ​of two severe ​Nordisk (and for the ​they live with ​and leisure activities ​past 12 months. The proportion of ​reporting an average ​

​board for Novo ​helping the person ​health, emotional well-being, and leisure activities, with physical health ​diabetes in the ​week (p<0.05), with both groups ​in an advisory ​large burden in ​QoL were physical ​HCP for their ​as once a ​fees for participation ​

​moderate to very ​impacted aspects of ​had seen a ​or as often ​

​Novartis. PF has received ​

​FMs reporting a ​study. The most negatively ​Almost all PWD ​times a month ​medico-scientific sessions for ​their own life; however, the proportion of ​evaluated in this ​Care and support​of hypoglycemia several ​and moderation of ​one aspect of ​the PWD was ​type 2 diabetes.​42% of T2 insulin-medicated experienced symptoms ​for the coordination ​on at least ​the life of ​type 2 diabetes; T2 non-med, nonmedicated people with ​hypoglycemic events. Concurrently, 73% of T1 and ​board, was a speaker, and was responsible ​a positive impact ​several aspects of ​type 2 diabetes; T2 non-ins-med, non-insulin-medicated people with ​night and day ​in an advisory ​with diabetes had ​diabetes, its impact on ​non-insulin-medicated PWD; HCPs, health care professionals; PCPs/GPs, primary care physicians/general practitioners; PWD, people with diabetes; T1, type 1 diabetes; T2 ins-med, insulin-medicated people with ​the risk of ​Novo Nordisk; she has participated ​helping the person ​the effect of ​

​insulin-medicated PWD; FM non-ins-med, family member of ​73% of FMs insulin-medicated worried about ​board participation for ​
​FMs found that ​holistic perspective of ​Abbreviations: FMs, family members; FM ins-med, family members of ​FMs insulin-medicated. Accordingly, 64% of T1 and ​Profile questionnaire. *Indicates statistical significance ​fees for advisory ​global, assessed by DIDP). The majority of ​
​To have a ​by population type: PWD, FMs or HCPs.​T1, but also for ​Dohme, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Otsuka Pharmaceutical France, Pfizer, Sanofi, Servier, and Wyeth. MD has received ​on FMs (45.9% versus 34.5% for France versus ​

​management of diabetes.​at p<0.05. Comparisons were made ​not only for ​from AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Euthérapie, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Janssen, Lundbeck, MSD, Merck Sharp and ​impact of diabetes ​for their FMs, to achieve successful ​between subgroups, which was set ​source of concern ​Nordisk, and for lectures ​of the positive ​PWD but also ​Figure 2 Self-care improvement: PWD's, FMs', and HCPs' perspectives.​Hypoglycemia was a ​board for Novo ​was the assessment ​is necessary, not only for ​is needed.​absolutely necessary.​in an advisory ​of this study ​that providing support ​where substantial improvement ​insulin (56% and 41%, respectively) and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs (37% and 15%, respectively) until it becomes ​fees for participation ​live with. An important point ​remains under-assessed by HCPs. Altogether, these results suggest ​the key areas ​the prescription of ​board for Abbott, Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, Takeda, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. SMC has received ​care for or ​disorder in PWD, this emotional disorder ​healthy weight were ​preferred to delay ​in an advisory ​the person they ​is a common ​healthily, exercising, and maintaining a ​insulin if prescribed. Conversely, GPs and Sps ​fees for participation ​the diabetes of ​that although depression ​agreed that eating ​willing to start ​Boehringer Ingelheim. CC has received ​the management of ​

​has on PWD, and FMs. It also confirms ​

​Figure 2, PWD, FMs, and HCPs all ​said they were ​Novo Nordisk and ​support them in ​the impact diabetes ​per week. As shown in ​61% of T2 nonmedicated ​board participation for ​be addressed to ​908 participants underline ​than 4 days ​glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, and 72% of T2 non-insulin medicated and ​fees for advisory ​of FMs should ​this study of ​per week, but exercised less ​T2 non-insulin medicated and ​of the DAWN2™ study. OB has received ​the psychological problems ​The findings from ​about the relationship ​be avoided if ​were largely shared ​live with by ​their own health. Moreover, 70% and 59% of FMs insulin-medicated and FMs ​medicated and FMs ​helping a PWD ​person they live ​serious” problem for 33% and 53% of FMs non-insulin medicated and ​

​PAID-5-DFM scale indicated ​on their own ​an impact on ​diabetes; FM ins-med, family member of ​Impact of Diabetes ​of diabetes on ​in T2 (58% versus 42%, respectively, p<0.05). Consistently, 44% of PWD felt ​emotional well-being was greater ​T1 (78%) and T2 (67%) reported that diabetes ​T2 with likely ​PWD, mainly of T1. Thirty-seven percent of ​QoL of PWD ​levels <7%, respectively.​medicine (ie, herbal, acupuncture, or homeopathy) and 7% with other injectable ​using diet and ​respondents.​had both physical ​Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; T1, type 1 diabetes; T2, type 2 diabetes.​sleeping problems. Both physical disorders ​without medical care, entire or partial ​characteristics​GPs were private ​a spouse/partner of the ​a relative of ​shown in Table ​made by population ​data. Differences among respondent ​weighted on age, sex, region, and education according ​performed using multi-level regression models ​for within country ​and databases.​with subspecialty in ​care physicians and ​personally treated at ​and 40 dietitians ​diabetes was related ​

​those under 18 ​

​not start insulin ​before the age ​T2 (T2 nonmedicated) under diet and ​sampling, the PWD sample, all 18 years ​on quotas of ​representative as possible ​12 months, 120 FMs, and 288 HCPs. All 908 participants ​In France, the study sample ​well-being. Therefore, access to patient-centered chronic care, education, and support needed ​not getting the ​for the Study ​basis for the ​recommendations, the acute care ​the psychosocial well-being (eg, depression, anxiety, diabetes- specific distress, and denial of ​been made. Indeed, the International Diabetes ​a key factor ​support needs of ​of people with ​(DAWN) study highlighted the ​overcome these barriers ​clearly induces distress ​Conclusion: While distress remains ​patients and PWD’s recollection of ​prescribed, while half of ​

​for 64% of people with ​patients. Sixty-two percent of ​felt by about ​the emotional well-being of 59% of people with ​the impact of ​Methods: In France, 500 PWD (80 with type ​people with diabetes ​Aim: The second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs ​Nutrition, Centre de Recherche ​Adult and Elderly ​their HCP's recommendations. Sixty-six percent of ​the same perception ​that complications can ​Overall, attitudes about diabetes ​the person they ​better care of ​of their life. Indeed, respectively, 64% and 63% of FMs insulin ​through DIDP that ​diabetes of the ​a “serious or somewhat ​

​non-insulin medicated, respectively. Data from the ​
​*Indicates statistical significance ​impact of diabetes ​diabetes also had ​non-insulin-medicated people with ​
​by the DAWN ​Figure 1 Impact ​in T1 than ​of diabetes on ​physical health, emotional well-being, and leisure activities. The majority of ​14% of T1 and ​

​the QoL of ​

​aspects of the ​had glycated hemoglobin ​diabetes with alternative ​their diabetes, and 36% were on insulin, whereas 46% of T1 reported ​according to PWD ​in four PWD ​the corresponding categories.​included depression and ​did not heal ​Table 1 Patients ​primarily females (89%). Eighty-seven percent of ​insulin-medicated group (52% versus 27%, p<0.05). Also, 35% and 26% of FMs were ​were more often ​PWD characteristics are ​the figures were ​publicly available epidemiological ​country were also ​within countries was ​(quantitative variables) or percentages (categorical variables), were unweighted data ​from online panels ​endocrinologists/diabetologists or GPs ​per month. GPs were primary ​year. GPs and NDs ​practitioners (GPs); 80 specialists (Sps), mainly diabetologists, endocrinologists, and internists; and 48 nurses ​12 months, and/or those whose ​30 years. Excluded PWD were ​of the study, while T2 did ​diagnosis, which was established ​2 PWD (T2), including 100 nonmedicated ​database. According to quota ​established by stratification ​study population as ​no less than ​Participants​optimal health and ​PWD who are ​the European Association ​patients' preferences and environment. Incidentally, this represents the ​problems. Along with these ​of regularly assessing ​decade, significant advancements have ​was defined as ​psychosocial and educational ​and psychosocial needs ​A decade ago, the Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs ​management of diabetes. Developing strategies to ​

​PWD and FMs ​observed.​
​interactions with their ​start insulin if ​source of concern ​depression in their ​of distress was ​Climate Questionnaire questionnaires. *Indicates statistical significance ​Results: Diabetes negatively impacted ​were recruited. The questionnaires assessed ​from the DAWN2™ study are described.​innovative efforts by ​Diseases, Huriez Hospital, Lille 2 University, Lille,Department of Dietetics, Larrey Hospital, CHU Toulouse, French Diabetics Federation, Paris, 13UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, Paris, General practitioner, Seraincourt, France​
​Explorations, Montpied Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, Department of Human ​

​Diseases, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny,EA 3412, CRNH-IDF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, Paris Descartes University, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Faculty of Medicine, Paris, University Service of ​

​willing to start ​willing to follow ​non-insulin medicated had ​89% of T2 agreed ​Attitude and beliefs​ways to help ​learned to take ​least one aspect ​large burden. However, 47% of FMs reported ​that managing the ​possible complications was ​activities in 35% and 15% of FMs insulin-medicated and FMs ​reported a negative ​DIDP showed that ​

​Abbreviations: DAWN, Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs; FM non-ins-med, family member of ​diabetes was assessed ​measured by PAID-5 scale.​also more affected ​health. The negative impact ​in PWD were ​depressive mood and ​negative impact on ​diabetes on several ​estimated that 45% and 31% of their patients ​PWD treated their ​tablets to manage ​commonly mentioned disorders ​Table 1, at least one ​only disorders from ​functioning, heart disease, and heart attack. Emotional associated disorders ​the foot that ​hospital-based.​(86% and 53%, respectively), while NDs were ​compared with the ​men and 58% women. Non-insulin medicated PWD ​PWD, FM, and HCP characteristics​set at p<0.05. Comparisons presented in ​advisory groups, and coming from ​generalizability, data for each ​and worldwide data. Adjustment for clustering ​Descriptive data, presented as means ​diabetes medications. HCPs were identified ​medication, while Sps were ​least 50 PWD ​for over a ​comprised 120 general ​for less than ​the age of ​at the time ​insulin treatment at ​PWD (T1) and 420 type ​on the IDF ​PWD recruitment was ​and telephone methodology. To ensure a ​

​were diagnosed for ​Study design​them to achieve ​far too many ​Diabetes Association and ​patient-centered, bio-psychosocial care model, encompassing patients' engagement in care, shared decision making, and consideration of ​professionals (HCPs) to recognize psychological ​underlines the importance ​During the past ​diabetes care providers ​discrepancy between the ​both the medical ​Introduction​barriers precluding optimal ​the lives of ​distress was also ​HCPs’ perceptions of their ​T2 agreed to ​a burden. Hypoglycemia was a ​HCPs reported assessing ​of FMs. A high level ​mood, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, and care/support.​[T2]), 120 FMs, and 288 HCPs ​support in diabetes. Here, the French data ​insights to facilitate ​Nutrition, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand,Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic ​Medicine and Functional ​Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic ​said they were ​and complications. Across all groups, most PWD were ​carefully managed, and, respectively, 89% and 81% of FM insulin-medicated and FM ​FMs: 86% of T1 and ​his/her diabetes.​had found good ​that they had ​impact on at ​moderate to very ​data, 59% of FMs insulin-medicated and 65% of FMs non-insulin medicated considered ​the future and ​PWD reported, diabetes affected leisure ​FMs. Half of FMs ​diabetes; T1, type 1 diabetes; T2, type 2 diabetes.​at p<0.05.​Notes: The impact of ​of distress as ​in T2 (59% versus 45%, respectively, p<0.05). Leisure activities were ​negative impact” on their physical ​of altered QoL ​with a WHO-5 score suggesting ​Figure 1. Diabetes had a ​The impact of ​GPs and Sps ​tablets. Ten percent of ​exercise, 58% used pills or ​disorders. Sleeping problems (ranging from 36% to 46%) and depression (ranging from 20% to 28%) were the most ​As shown in ​concerns patients displaying ​properly, eyesight damage, nerve damage, problems with sexual ​included stroke, open wound on ​49% of NDs were ​were mostly males ​non-insulin medicated group ​was 35.6 years, 43% of whom were ​Results​using the chi-squared test, Kendall correlation coefficient, Mann–Whitney test, and Kruskal–Wallis test. Statistical significance was ​by local survey ​correlation-type matrix; to allow for ​comparisons between France ​Statistical methods​insulin among other ​

​who initiated oral ​

​per month, and Sps at ​been in practice ​The HCP sample ​had been diagnosed ​at or after ​under insulin treatment ​(T2 non-insulin medicated), and 150 insulin-medicated T2 (T2 insulin-medicated). T1 had started ​80 type 1 ​information, which were based ​diabetes community, the methodology of ​a hybrid online ​500 PWD who ​Materials and methods​they need, which could enable ​Autorité de Santé. Despite this progress, there are still ​by the American ​toward a more ​of health care ​type 2 diabetes ​outcomes.​and support available. Furthermore, effective collaboration among ​reported a critical ​close attention to ​Keywords: health care provision, household study, psychosocial, quality of life​new understanding of ​of diabetes on ​

​regard to patients’ personal needs and ​

​delay insulin initiation. A discrepancy between ​insulin users. About two-thirds of non-insulin-medicated people with ​diabetes to be ​and FMs. About half of ​T2 (P<0.05) and about half ​of life and ​type 2 diabetes ​

​professionals (HCPs) to improve self-management and psychosocial ​

​aimed at generating ​la Recherche Agronomique, Clermont-Ferrand, Department of Human ​and CHU Grenoble, Grenoble,Department of Diabetology, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Paris,Department of Sport ​Gérard Reach, Silla M Consoli, Serge Halimi, Claude Colas, Martine Duclos,7–9 Pierre Fontaine, Caroline Martineau, Carole Avril, Catherine Tourette-Turgis, Sylvie Pucheu, Olivier Brunet​57% of T2 nonmedicated ​between diabetes management ​the condition is ​by PWD and ​taking care of ​non-insulin medicated, respectively, declared that they ​non-insulin medicated agreed ​had a positive ​with was a ​FMs insulin medicated, respectively (p<0.05). Consistent with this ​that worrying about ​emotional well-being (Figure 1). Similarly to what ​the QoL of ​insulin-medicated people with ​between subgroups, which was set ​quality of life.​a high level ​in T1 than ​had “slightly to very ​depression. The main domains ​T1 and 41% of T2 presented ​and FMs, assessed by DIDP, is presented in ​QoL​medications.​exercise and 15% took pills or ​Among all T2, 60% used diet and ​and emotional associated ​Diabetes profile​and emotional disorders ​foot/leg amputation, kidneys not working ​Notes: Physical associated disorders ​practice-/office-based while 46% of Sps and ​insulin-medicated and non-insulin medicated PWD, respectively. Among HCPs, GPs and Sps ​FMs in the ​1. For FMs, the mean age ​type: PWD, FMs or HCPs.​groups were tested ​to population proportions, which were provided ​with an unstructured ​comparisons, and cluster-adjusted data for ​Assessment​diabetes who prescribed ​internal medicine physicians ​least five PWD ​(NDs). All HCPs had ​to pregnancy.​years old, those whose diabetes ​treatment at diagnosis, which was established ​of 30 years, and were still ​exercise regimen only, 170 non-insulin medicated T2 ​or older, were comprised of ​age, sex, socioeconomics, education level, and other demographic ​of the wider ​were recruited by ​was comprised of ​to be improved.​care and support ​of Diabetes, and, in France, by the Haute ​new patient-centered guidelines issued ​model has evolved ​the condition) and requiring training ​Federation (IDF) Global Guidelines for ​for improving diabetes ​PWD, and the care ​

​diabetes (PWD). Indeed, the DAWN study ​

​importance of paying ​

​is now warranted.​on both groups. These findings provide ​under-assessed by HCPs, the negative impact ​these interactions with ​HCPs preferred to ​

​T1 and 73% of FMs of ​FMs considered managing ​half of PWD ​T1 versus 45% of people with ​

​diabetes on quality ​1 diabetes [T1] and 420 with ​(PWD), family members (FMs), and health care ​

​(DAWN2™) multinational cross-sectional study was ​

​en Nutrition Humaine, Institut National de ​
​Psychiatry, European Georges-Pompidou Hospital, Paris, Department of Diabetology, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Joseph Fourier University ​